Some claim that the very disagreement between the various ideologies is proof that they’re all false. This is obviously fallacious. For some disagreements exist between collectively exhaustive beliefs, and so it is rationally impossible for both sides to be wrong. 

Take for example, the disagreement between those who affirm the existence of God versus those who deny it. Clearly, it cannot be the case that God is neither existent nor non-existent. Since the existence of God is collectively exhaustive with His non-existence. And so both propositions cannot be false[1].

Thus, the very fact that two or more groups disagree, does not entail that both be wrong. Nor does it even entail that it is more likely for both to be wrong.

And the same fallacy mentioned above is committed by a variety of groups, not just the sophists. Like those atheists, who claim that the disagreement between the many religions is proof that they’re all false. Or those Mujasima, who claim that the disagreement between the Mutakalimun is proof that they’re all wrong. Or those Twelvers, who claim that the differences between the Sunni schools is proof that they’re all wrong.


 

[1] In other words, it is rationally impossible for the propositions “God exists” and “God does not exist” to be both false.

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