God is One in His being. Which means that He is the only necessary being, and there is no other. The proof for this is called Burhan Al-Tamayuz (the proof by distinction), and it can be expressed in the following manner:

    • If a multiplicity of necessary beings exists, then each must be distinguished by some unique specification that all others lack.
    • It is impossible for each necessary being to be distinguished by some unique specification that all others lack.
    • Therefore, a multiplicity of necessary beings does not exist.

Given the existence of God, we know that at least one necessary being exists. So if the conclusion of Burhan Al-Tamayuz is true, then God is the only necessary being.

Premise 1: If a multiplicity of necessary beings exists, then each must be distinguished by some unique specification that all others lack

This premise is true by law of identity. Each necessary being must possesses features which make it itself, and which makes all others not itself. For if all those necessary beings were indistinguished from one another, then they wouldn’t exist as a multiplicity[1].

Those distinguishing features must be specifications, because if they were either necessary or impossible, they would’t be distinctive. If those features were necessarily affirmed for necessary beings, then they would exist for all of them. And if those features were impossible for necessary beings, then they would exist for none of them.

Premise 2: It is impossible for each necessary being to be distinguished by some unique specification that all others lack

This premise is true, because it is impossible for necessary beings to be specified. That which is specified depends on an extrinsic specifier to have brought it into existence. So specifications are proof for contingency. And the same being cannot be both necessary and contingent by law of non-contradiciton.

Therefore, a multiplicity of necessary beings does not exist

The two premises are true, so the conclusion necessarily follows. Therefore, a multiplicity of necessary beings does not exist.

This means that the only necessary being in existence is God. All other beings exist contingently, and are thus emergent.


 

[1] This becomes clearer to conceptualize when we realize that the various contingent beings differ from one another on this basis as well.

For example: two bodies differ from one another by spacial occupation. Meaning: they are distinguished from another, because each body occupies its own unique space at any given moment. And if two bodies were identical in all respects (even by spacial occupation, i.e. they both occupied the same place at the same time), then they wouldn’t be two bodies. They would be one. Since there is nothing to distinguish each from the other.

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