The existence of God was deduced by realizing that all bodies are emergent. Since God is beginningless, while bodies are emergent, that which makes bodies emergent cannot apply to God. God is therefore, necessarily distinguished from creation.

This article will highlight some of the features that distinguish the being of God from all bodies.


God is necessarily independent.

Independent: His existence is not contingent upon an extrinsic specifier.

This is true because God is a necessary being. And the existence of a necessary being is intrinsic to its essence, not acquired from an extrinsic specifier. We prove that God’s existence is necessary by way of the following argument:

    • God is either a necessary being, or a contingent being.
    • God is not a contingent being.
    • Therefore, God is a necessary being.

The first premise is true because necessity and contingency are collectively exhaustive with respect to any existent. Such that any existent was either brought into existence, or it was not. The first case describes a contingent being, the second describes a necessary being.

As for the second premise, it is true because the beginningless creator cannot be brought into existence. Since that which is brought into existence is necessarily emergent. And the same being cannot be both emergent and beginningless.

Thus, God is a necessary being, whose existence does not depend on an extrinsic specifier.


God is necessarily everlasting. This is because God is a necessary being, and a necessary being does not accept non-existence in of itself. So its existence cannot be succeeded by its non-existence.


God is necessarily incorporeal.

Incorporeal: He is not a body.

This is because bodies are emergent, while God is beginningless.

Notice: since God is incorporeal, nothing that necessitates corporeality can be affirmed for Him. Therefore it is impossible for God to exist in a place, to be confined to a direction, to be attributed with accidents like rest or motion, to have a shape and size, or to have a color. As any of this would necessitate corporeality, while God is incorporeal.


God is necessarily immutable.

Immutable: He does not suffer from the potential to change.

Change is a being’s transitioning from being attributed with some accident, to being attributed with some other accident. When the first accident ceases to exist, the second emerges into existence.

For example: a body that was at rest and then begins moving, has transitioned from being attributed with rest, to being attributed with motion.

God is immutable because He is beginningless, and whatever has the potential to change, is necessarily emergent. This is by way of the following argument:

    • Whatever has the potential to change, is inseparable from accidents.
    • Whatever is inseparable from accidents, is emergent.
    • Therefore, whatever has the potential to change is emergent.

The first premise is true by definition of change. Since change occurs when a being loses one accident, and acquires another. So if a being were not attributed with any accidents, then this being would not accept change.

The second premise of this argument is identical to the second premise of Burhan Huduth Al-Ajsam, which was already proven.

Therefore, whatever has the potential to change is emergent. And God is not emergent. So God is necessarily immutable.

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