In a previous article, the world’s emergence was used as a proof for the existence of the Divine Will. In turn, the existence of the Will can be used as proof for the existence of Divine Knowledge.

This is the case, because a being with the ability to select one choice from amongst many possible alternatives, must be aware of what those possibilities are in order to be able to select one of them. For intending a thing, is tangential to knowing what this thing is. And the attribute by virtue of which God is aware of such possibilities, is all what we mean by “Knowledge”. Thus, if God is attributed with the ability to select any possibility, then He must be attributed with Knowledge pertaining to all those possibilities. And since He is attributed with this ability to select, He is attributed with Knowledge.

Necessity of Knowledge

Knowledge is a condition for being able to select. And we have already proven that God’s ability to select exists beginninglessly. Thus, His Knowledge must exist beginninglessly as well. Moreover, what exists beginninglessly cannot exist contingently. And since Knowledge does not exist contingently, Knowledge exists necessarily.

It can also be said: once it is proven that God is attributed with Knowledge, either this Knowledge is emergent or beginningless. It cannot be emergent, as this would entail change on the part of God[1], which is impossible given His immutability[2]. Thus, God’s Knowledge exists beginninglessly and necessarily.

Genericness of Knowledge’s Relations

The actual relations (Ta’aluqat Tanjizia) of God’s Knowledge[3], generically pertain to all things. In other words, God necessarily knows all necessities, all impossibilities, and all possibilities. That includes how things are, how they are not, how they could have been, and how they would have been if what was possible for them occurred.

This is because the alternative entails the specification of God’s Knowledge. And what is specified depends on an extrinsic specifier to select its specifications for it from the possible alternatives[4]. This is impossible for God’s Knowledge given its necessity.

Thus, the actual relations of God’s Knowledge, generically pertain to all things. In other words: God is necessarily omniscient.


[1] If it were possible for a quality to emerge for God, then God would have first existed in a state of lacking said quality, before transitioning into a state of being attributed with this quality. This is a change.

[2] More on this here.

[3] There are no potential relations (Ta’luqat Suluhia) to God’s Knowledge. This because there is no thing that God could have known but doesn’t. Rather, He beginninglessly knew all things. Thus, all of Knowledge’s relations are actual relations.

The above is unlike God’s Will and Power, which do have potential relations. Since there are specifications which God could have selected, even though He didn’t.

[4] After it is established that God knows some things (specifically, Knowledge of all possibilities, such that He is able to select one of them), we say: either He also knows all other things, or not.

If He doesn’t know all other things, then His Knowledge was specified to only relate to some but not others. And what is specified is contingent upon a specifier to select its specifications for it.

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