An opponent might say: “We grant that a necessary being exists, and that this necessary being is He Who the world depends on to exist. But what is the proof that the necessary being is not randomly generating contingents, as opposed to volitionally selecting existence for them?”

We respond: randomness is nothing but a contingent emerging without an extrinsic specifier[1]. So claiming that a contingent emerged into existence randomly, while granting that God is this contingent’s extrinsic specifier, is a contradiction[2].

And as far as the Will is concerned, either:

    • God was unable to leave the world non-existent.
    • God was able to leave the world non-existent.

If the first, then the world would exist so long as God does. And since the non-existence of the necessary being is impossible, this would entail that the non-existence of the world be impossible. That however is false, for we have already proven that the world is both contingent and emergent. 

Thus, God was able to leave the world non-existent. And if this is the case, then God must possesses the ability to select between either creating the world or leaving it non-existent. This ability to select is all what we mean by “Will”. Thus, God is attributed with Will.

To the above the opponent might respond: “We do not submit that randomness is the emergence of a contingent without an extrinsic specifier. For it is possible for God to have created a completely unpredictable and chaotic world. And in this case, you have both randomness and an extrinsic specifier.”

We respond: you are conflating randomness with disorder. We accept that it is possible for God to have created a disorderly world. But if this were the case, then it would have been so by virtue of His ability to select disorder from its possible alternative[3]. So even this would not preclude the existence of the Will.


[1] In other words, something spontaneously “popping” into existence without cause or creator.

[2] Tantamount to claiming that the contingent both has and has no extrinsic specifier.

[3] The alternative being an orderly world, like the one God actually selected existence for.

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