Knowledge[1] is certain conviction that matches reality. Such that if one is certain that some belief is true, and this belief is actually true, then this belief is also knowledge.

Types of Knowledge

Knowledge is of two kinds: conceptual (Taswiri) and propositional (Tasdiqi).

Conceptual: knowledge of a meaning. For example: knowledge of what “God” means. This known meaning is called a concept.

Propositional: knowledge of a relation between two concepts. For example: knowledge that “God exists”, where “existence” is related to “God”. The statement “God exists” is called a proposition.

Complexity of Knowledge

Each of conceptual and propositional knowledge is further divided into two sub-categories depending on the complexity of the known information: the axiomatic (Badihi), and the inferential (Nazari).

Axiomatic: information that does not require pondering to be known. For example: knowledge that “1 + 1 = 2”.

Inferential: information that does require pondering to be known. For example: knowledge that “14 × 6.5 = 91”.

The complexity of information is subjective to the thinker. Some facts may be axiomatic to some people, while being inferential to others. Some facts may even be inferential for one person at one time, and axiomatic for this same person at another time.

Categories of Knowledge

 

Axiomatically conceptual: knowledge of a meaning that requires no pondering to be known. For example: knowledge of what “existence” means[2].

Inferentially conceptual: knowledge of a meaning that requires pondering to be known. For example: knowledge of what “quark” means.

Axiomatically propositional: knowledge of a relation between two concepts, that requires no pondering to be known. For example: knowledge that “a whole is greater than each of its parts”.

Inferentially propositional: knowledge of a relation between two concepts, that  requires pondering to be known. For example: knowledge that “God exists”.


 

[1] By “knowledge” in this context, we mean human knowledge specifically.

[2] In fact, the meaning of “existence” is so basic, it may even be ineffable. This is because one of the purposes of a definition is to explicate on what a word means by using simpler terms, and “existence” cannot be simplified any further.

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