A brief debate with a Christian, on the subject of the incarnation, that Imam Fakhr Al-Deen Al-Razi recounts in his Al-Arba’een fi Usul Al-Deen. The imam writes:

I told the Christian: do you accept that the absence of evidence, is not evidence for absence?

He said: yes.

So I told him: what is your evidence that the being of God did not assume the body of Zayd, or the body of ‘Amr, or the body of this fly, or the body of this ant?

He said: such a thing is impossible. We believe that God assumed the body of Christ, because miracles appeared at his hands. Miracles like the resurrection of the dead, and the healing of the blind and of the lepers. So if none of those miracles appeared at the hands of Zayd or ‘Amr, how can we affirm that God subsists within their bodies?

I responded: you initially submitted that the absence of evidence, is not evidence for absence. And you consider the appearance of a miracle at the hands of someone, to be evidence for the subsistence of God within the body of said person. As such, the absence of this evidence, should not count as evidence against that subsistence. Ultimately, this entails that you don’t know whether or not God subsists within the body of this ant, or the body of this fly. And any religion which entails such ignorance, is truly despicable.

Moreover, in the same way miracles appeared at the hands of Jesus peace be upon him, miracles also appeared at the hands of Moses peace be upon him. In fact, the transformation of a wooden staff into a snake, is even greater than the resurrection of the dead. So if Jesus’ miracles are proof for his divinity, then Moses’ miracles should also be proof for his divinity.

– Al-Razi, Al-Arba’een fi Usul Al-Deen (Vol. 1, pg. 167)

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