Contrary to Sunnies- who claim Allah ﷻ is unlike creation, and thus incorporeal- the Mujasima[1] believe that God is a body.

Body: a being with dimensions (a height, width, or depth) stretched out in space.

We argue for God’s incorporeality with the following syllogism:

    • Allah did not begin to exist.
    • All bodies began to exist.
    • Therefore, Allah is not a body.

Premise 1: Allah did not begin to exist

The truth of this first premise is agreed upon between the Sunnies and the Mujasima.

Premise 2: All bodies began to exist

The second premise is true, because it is impossible for a beginningless body to exist. This is because a body is inseparable from either the state of motion, or the state of rest. So if a beginningless body existed, it would either have been:

    • Moving since eternity past
    • Resting since eternity past
    • Alternating between motion and rest since eternity past

All three of the above is impossible, and that which entails impossibility is impossible. So it is impossible for a beginningless body to exist. Proof for the impossibility of each category follows below.

Moving Since Eternity Past

This is impossible for two reasons:

First because the state of motion exists contingently for a body. Meaning: a body that is moving, accepts rest. Since the state of motion exists contingently, this means it was brought into existence by some specifier that selected motion over the possible alternative. And since the state of motion was brought into existence, it could not have been beginningless. Therefore a body moving since eternity past is impossible.

Second it is also impossible for a body to have been moving since eternity past, because motion is the body changing its location over time. Every transition from one location to another is an event in time, and it is impossible for an infinite number of events to have been completed in the past[2]. And since the number of events in the past is finite, it is the case that the state of motion is emergent.

Resting Since Eternity Past

This is impossible for the same two reasons the first category was impossible.

First the state of rest exists contingently. A body that is at rest, accepts motion. Accordingly, the state of rest could not have been beginningless.

Second it is also impossible for a body to be at rest since eternity past, because rest is the body maintaining its same location over time. Every moment the body remains at rest in, is an event in time. And it is impossible for an infinite number of events to have been completed in the past.

Alternating Between Motion and Rest Since Eternity Past

This is impossible because each alternation from one state to another is an event in time, and it is impossible for an infinite number of events to have been completed in the past.

Therefore, Allah is not a body

The two premises are true, so the conclusion necessarily follows. This means that it is impossible for Allah ﷻ, who is beginningless by agreement, to be a body.


 

[1] Mujasim: a person who believes that God is a body. This belief is called Tajsim.

[2] Given the impossibility of Tasasul.

The past consists of the events that lead up to and conclude with the present moment. Therefore, to claim that the past consists of an infinite number of events, is to claim that an infinite number of events were concluded. This is impossible because “infinite” is equivalent to endlessness, while “concluded” is equivalent to coming to an end. Thus, to say that an infinity concluded, is to say that an endlessness came to an end. This is contradictory, and is as such impossible.

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