Imam Fakhr Al-Deen Al-Razi proves that the creative relation is not extra-mentally additional to the Creator and that which is created.
A more appropriate way to deal with those who deny the existence of the extra-mental physical world, by arguing that it is possible for it to be all a dream, or a virtual illusion, or something similar.
Responding to those who argue that the indecisiveness of each singular testimony supporting a mass transmitted report, entails that the mass transmitted report be itself indecisively reliable.
The chief argument for the beginninglessness of the world presumes that effects necessarily exist if their cause does, and that God is the cause for the world, entailing the existence of the world so long as God does. This article presents Imam Al-Razi's response.
Suppose there was a change in the relation between two relata. Does this necessarily mean that both changed? Or is it only proof for the changing of at least one?