Suppose there was a change in the relation between two relata. Does this necessarily mean that both changed? Or is it only proof for the changing of at least one?
The Mutakalimun understand relations to be abstract objects, existing in the mind of the one who thinks about two or more essences. This article demonstrates why they held this to be the case.
Proving that one must affirm axiomatic propositions that are true without needing to be proven, and axiomatic concepts that are understandable without needing to be defined.
Proof that if a possible essence exists, then this necessarily means that this essence acquired its existence from that which is other than itself.
Responding to a popular claim of the Mujasima, who argue that reason has no place in religion, and that rationalizing theology is contrary to what revelation teaches.