The Mutakalimun understand relations to be abstract objects, existing in the mind of the one who thinks about two or more essences. This article demonstrates why they held this to be the case.
Using the fact that realties cannot transform, to offer a proof for the ability of God to bring any possible essence into existence.
Some atheists argue that physicists have now scientific proof for the emergence of existents by nothing. This post will offer a brief response to this claim.
Distinguishing between "out of thing" and "by nothing" in order to alleviate a confusion that some atheists fall into when discussing the proofs for the existence of God.
Imam Fakhr Al-Deen Al-Razi's proof for the legitimacy of Abu Bakr's Caliphate. Contrary to the Twelvers, who claim that he usurped leadership from 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib.