A simplified rendering of Burhan Al-Tatbiq to prove that it is impossible for a single contingent to have been the effect of an infinite sequence of contingents.
Suppose there was a change in the relation between two relata. Does this necessarily mean that both changed? Or is it only proof for the changing of at least one?
The Mutakalimun understand relations to be abstract objects, existing in the mind of the one who thinks about two or more essences. This article demonstrates why they held this to be the case.
Distinguishing intrinsic truths from extrinsic ones, and arguing against the transformation of realties.
Proving that one must affirm axiomatic propositions that are true without needing to be proven, and axiomatic concepts that are understandable without needing to be defined.